Hindu legend in Australian Aboriginal Dreaming

Aboriginal legends and languages of central-east Australia suggest contact by Hindu people during the 2000 years since historic Indian settlement in South East Asia. From that time, the increasing wealth, population and thus prestige of Sanskrit-brahmin guided, Hindu kingdoms motivated the usage of gold for coins, sculptures and decoration of temples and palaces. Sumatra was known as an “island of gold” and an 11th century hoard of royal Javanese gold bullion is preserved in Indonesia, and was exhibited in Brisbane 10 years ago. In the 14th century, Javan gold-miners sailed to Philippines to prospect and mine, and a gold sculpture from that era is now in USA. The nagara “royal city” of Angkor Wat consumed artworks of many types, and logically this would include gold in great quantities.The search for gold possibly led ships from Indonesia to reach east Australia or the Muslim conquest of Java in 15th century may have caused Hindus from Java or Bali to flee to Australia. Macassan fishermen were sailing to Cape York in north Australia. They gave about 600 words to north Australian languages, such as ruppiah for “money”. 2000 years ago, India had ships 50 metres long weighing 600 tons for trade with east Asia. Indonesian and Balinese are about 50% Sanskrit vocabulary.
There is almost no archaeology apart from 2 cave paintings to support this legend. However similarities in vocabulary are given here:

Bundjalung is the country on the north coast of NSW between Grafton and Brisbane and west to the mountains. Bundjalung people remember that a ship arrived from Ngareenbeil, meaning “overseas islands”. (1).In Old Bali language, negarinbeli means “your beloved countryman”, a high status word used by a princess to a prince, and fits the idea of Ngareenbeil as referring to Bali. (2). Negara means the ritual Hindu government in Java-Bali, and means the state in Malaysia. In a similar way, Bundjalung ngari means “ritual dance”, (3) and borroon is the dance ring of Brisbane area. Bara in Thailand is the dance-room of the king, and Cambodian borei is the royal temple. Sanskrit nagara became the word nekhor, Angkor Wat, in Cambodia. Thus, Cambodia had nagara borei , and east Australia had ngari borroon . At the boorroon, elders sat on a raised platform, a dhur . Sanskrit dhur means “title, summit”. Bundjalung budar budarum means to speak of ancient knowledge as in Skt bodhi. Bundjalung legend says the 3 men on the ship spread out to other Aboriginal countries and gave them language and laws and in this way people kept in contact with overseas laws. Mahaji means “royal. teacher” in Java, and majji means “he conquered”. Mahhji is the strong god of Bundjalung at Grafton, where the ship from Bali landed.The ngatja guru elders of Brisbane area resemble the nkata elders of Bundjalung, and ngajahin guru “training teacher” of Bali. . The ship which arrived in Bundjalung at Yamba near Grafton had 3 men, named : Mamoon which is a Sanskrit and Bali name meaning “maternal uncle”; Ya Birrein meaning “the one who begins” and Birrung “the end”, in Old Bali language. The woman with them was Gaminya, in Sanskrit “the one who walks”. She became known as a goanna lizard, and was also named Dirrangan and had power to make a storm when she became angry at being left behind by the ship.
Dirrangan was the angry woman who blocked the river by moving mountains, until Balugaan the hunter liberated the river. Her name Dirrangan may be seen in Sanskrit dhira meaning “the mind”, and the Indonesian expression diri anggota meaning “personal election” in political voting for government. In Bali, diri means an individual person. In the language on the west of Bundjalung, dhirrin means “personal escape “. Bali angga means “one-self”, and angen means “thinking”. Dirrangan seems to mean “personal thoughts”. Dirrawong was also a goanna lizard-man, and may be seen in Bali language wong which means “person”. He fought against the Rainbow Serpent named Waugal, which may be from Bali warni meaning “colour”, and warna which means “appearance”. In Bali language, galih is “bone” and galang means “evident”, so Waugal then has the sense of “coloured appearance evident”, which fits the Rainbow Snake.Dirrawong chased the offending Rainbow Snake named Kurrea down the Clarence River.

The Bundjalung loan-word punya means “well-being” and in Bali means “to possess”. Punyah in Cambodia means “pure ,sacred” and Punya Bharata is “blessed land of India”, Sanskrit “holy.pure”. Punya is an ideal and purpose of the College of Aboriginal Studies at Southern Cross University, Lismore in Bundjalung country – as is gunna the Bundjalung word meaning “understanding, the use of knowledge”.(4). Sanskrit gan means “think”, and in Bali ganti is “change, renew”. Agastya Kumbhaja’s knowledge (see below) of science and astronomy was ganita and in Bali language, guna means “the use, applying knowledge. principles of religion”, just as Bundjalung gunna.

West of Brisbane the snake is Gurriya, at Goondiwindi, in Gamilaroi country. The Bundjalung legend about a blocked river is connected with a similar legend at Dirranbandi near Goondiwindi where a snake prevents people from paddling canoes or camping close to the river. Sanskrit bhandi means “to bind. block rivers”, so the word Dirranbandi resembles Dirrangen Dirrawong. Javanese diri ne bandi has the sense of “captive’s bonds” and in Balinese “bound person”.

Gurriya the Rainbow Snake is seen in the Gamilaroi word goori “pink-yellow lizard”, goora “flowers”, possibly red-yellow. Gora was a name of Indra sun-god and means “yellow-red”, thus the Rainbow Snake colours. The word “ya” is the pronoun in both Sanskrit and Bundjalung, so that goora ya may mean “the one who is yellow-red”. Gauri and Indra and Agastya Kumbhaja are named together in some Hindu texts. In Gamilaroi language, kamul means a man’s spirit, as in Indonesian kamil. At Goondiwindi, the Gamilaroi title for a local elder is Ngurampaa, guardian of sacred teachings. (5). In Bali, ngurah is a royal title, as in Ngurah Rai Airport, and Mpu means a semi-divine ruler, which would combine as Ngurah Mpu. A similar term in India is parampara “respected line of teachers”.Parampari is the name of a sorcerer who battled against Ngurunderi on the river flowing from Goondiwindi.

That river is the Barka (Darling river) of the Barkindji people. Sanskrit barga is “beautiful” andinduji is “river”.
A hot-water spring there is named Boomi, and Bhumi in Balinese culture is the goddess of fertile land with water, as in India of Bhudevi heavenly land of Bhumi goddess. The Paroo river a small, seasonal stream flows into it (Indonesianparu “canal”, Balinese “half”). A town there is Wanaaring “wood ducks”, which build nests in tree holes, Balinesewena “forest”,aring “entrance to house”. The hunter Ngurunderi chased a giant fishman Pundu who created the river as the hunter pursued on his fast raft of reeds, alalangangal. Balilalang reeds, engal fast. A straight length of river is named Peindjalang, Sktpeind “roadway”, Balinese jalan “road”.
There the people are Ngarandjeri, Old Bali nagarin beloved, jero rulers. The fish was caught and cut up to create other fish.
The legend resembles Pandu in the Mahabharata who battled Paundria who forgot that Vishnu as a giant fish man told Manu to build a boat to survive a flood. Manu tied Vishnu to the boat as representing all life forms. Vishnu and Agastya were revered in a Javanes temple. The Australian ceremony today is a Ringbalin, Skt /Bali ring “advance slowly / with, behind”. Skt /Bali balin “warrior”. ( website below).

In legend, a hunter at Goondiwindi used all his weapons to try to kill the Rainbow Serpent who was preventing people catching fish and ducks there. Along the Brisbane river, the snake is also named Goondah Dani Bulu. Goondah in India are thugs and criminals. Like Indra, the Rainbow snake is both good and bad. Danu is the river-goddess in Bali who has a temple on a lake, which is “danau” in Bali. In Bundjalung, the word booloo means “to plunge into water”. Goondah appears as Gundah creek at Coombadjha near Dandahra, which suggests that the rainbow snake Goondah Dani Bulu was fighting there also, and its name may mean “the criminal who plunges into lakes”. In Sanskrit and Bundjalung windi means “whistle; hissing”, like a snake. At Goondiwindi, the hunter resembles Indra who used all his weapons against the rainbow snake Vritra

North from Brisbane is Fraser Island, where the Batjala people called the island Gurree.(6) In that legend, Gurree was a beautiful white sky-spirit princess who created mountains in south Queensland and so the island is named Gurree, where she looks at the sky reflected in the pure lakes of rain-water in white sand. Sktgauri.: “white, beautiful, shining”.. The legend resembles Gauri, the shining white spirit wife of Shiva who washed her in Himalayan snow. She was a creator to balance the destructive power of Shiva, who is also named Indra.

At Brisbane, the word Indooroopilly means “running waters”. Indra sends rain and liberates rivers, as he did by killing the snake Vritra who held back rivers. Indra is carved at Angkor Wat with a rainbow snake. In Tamil, piili means tap-water, and in Malay language Indra is named Inderah. Kings in Sri Lanka used to float in a river to represent Indra sending rain, and “Indra floating” is Indra pilavana. Indonesian pilek means “running nose from a cold”, and pilu means “moved”. Examples of words which combine Indra are : Indriya “belonging to Indra” ; Indrasita “sent by Indra”; Indragopa “insects that come after rain”. Indrapura is a city of Indra in Sumatra, as is Bangkok in Thailand, and Indratataka is the great irrigation lake of Indra at Angkor Wat. Indra made Tirta Empul “sacred spring” in Bali, a major temple for Hindus today. Indradhanus is the rainbow of Indra, which fits with Indooroopilly as the rain-water, the running water at Brisbane. The word is derived from Nyindooroopilly, and in Bali language the prefix nya means an impulse going out, such as “desire, watch, join”. Sanskrit nya means “led along by”, so Nyindooroopilly would mean “running water from the impulse of Indra”. This is correct Hindu teaching.The Sanskrit word dhan meaning “flowing gift” in “Indra/dhan/us”, may appear in the name Dandahra creek at Coombadjha sacred site west of Grafton, north NSW, and may be Sanskrit dhandhara “bountiful flowing stream”. Coombadjha is on a mountaintop with beautiful forest and lyre-birds, and has many sacred sites of the countries of Bundjalung and Gambaingirr which border on it. Kumbhaja (Coombadjha?) is a title of Agastya who was a Hindu author of Vedic texts and is honoured by Tamils as their champion. Agastya has a shrine at Prambanan temple Java, with Durga. The word durga in Bundjalung means “night spirit”. Agastya Kumbhaja subdued or broke down mountains and is today identified with Agastya national park in mountains of Tamil Nadu in India. Aga means “mountains”, astya means “suddued”, and Agastya was connected with mountains in Thailand, Indonesia and Cambodia. The star Canopus which was used as a south polar star for ship navigation in the southern hemisphere, was named for Agastya Kumbhaja. That Kumbhaja star rises in March near the Southern Cross as the Indian Ocean becomes calm before the monsoon trade winds begin blowing from India towards Asia. Agastya also means “from the mind of Indra and Shiva”. 2500 years ago, Agastya Kumbhaja was the uncle of Kaundinya in Tamil Nadu, and a Kaundinya prince ruled the first Hindu kingdom in Cambodia, 2000 years ago. Australia has names and legends of the Southern Cross, and Gamilari language has a word meaning “meeting place under the Southern Cross’. The South Pole is on the axis of Mount Meru of Hindu gods and Skt Meru daksina means the South Pole. Coombadjha is sacred to Bundjalung and Gambaingirr people. Gambaingirr teach that miira the moon gives the balance in nature and gives energy to people. Sanskrit mihira is the moon, a form of Surya the sun, and means to lift up waters for rain. Bali language omits the /h/ in words so that the Aboriginal reflects the Bali pronunciation. Vaharamihira, or Mihira, was a famed astronomer 1500 years ago and is honoured by a wall-mural in India’s parliament. Gidgeon Miiral is the island in Coff’s Harbour of Gambaingirr, and the moon causes rip-tides and floods against those who ignore the laws.(7) .Boats can enter the river there only at hightides. The astronomy of Kumbhaja and Mihira would be vital for ships navigating past the Queensland Barrier Reef and locating rivermouths for landing. .
In Wenaruah country near Newcastle, is a rock-painting of a deity, 1 metre high and with arms 5 metres wide, with bird feet, and with 2 boomerangs .(8) Indra has very long arms and carries a weapon in each hand, and can assume any shape he chooses. Wenaruah means “hills and plains” , and in Bali wena means “forests” and ruah is “countless”, with adjectives following nouns. Wenaruah had treeless plains, but densely rain-forested hills near Barrington Tops mountains. Further south, in Victoria there is a rock chamber with a painting that is not in usual Aboriginal style. (8).He may have a third eye. The left shoulder has something folded on it, in Hindu style. The actual body colour is red. His name is Bunjil and the painting is in the mountains west of Bendigo gold-field, where gold nuggets are today found on the surface.
From close contact, French and German have around 6% common words. By comparison, Bundjalung and Sanskrit/Java apparently have around 10%.The ship of Bundjalung legend was shipwrecked, and so Ya Birrein, Birrrung , Mamoon and Gaminya became part of the population as ancestors.

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.References:.1.Three Brothers Legend: “Australian Dreaming” Dr J Isaacs, Cam. 1980 p 13,14..
“Papers of Marjorie Oakes – Three Brothers”. Australian Institute Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander Studies. Canberra.
2. per :Dr Darma Putra, School of Languages, UQld
3. “Dictionary of Bundjalung” Dr M Sharpe, UNE Armidale
4. Indigenous Persons College , Glossary . SCU Lismore
5. Michael Anderson, Ngurampaa elder of Euahlayi of Gamilaroi
6. “Written in Sand” F Williams, Jacaranda. 1982.
7. Coffs Harbour Tourism, Gidgeon Miiral island.
8. “Riches of Ancient Australia” Dr J Flood, UQld Brisbane,1990.
website:
Dancing a healing spirit back into the rivers – Sydney Morning Herald
http://www.smh.com.au › National‎
Apr 10, 2010 – Major Sumner’s river-country spirit ceremony, ”murrundi ruwe pangari ringbalin”, had been to Cunnamulla, Brewarrina, Gundabooka, …

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